《英语自学教程笔记》是通过对大学英语自学教程的学习所记录，对学习英语大有用处。 大学英语自学教程上册笔记Unit 1-2 Ⅱ.Intensive reading: 1.Most adults who are learning a second language would disagree with this statement. 大多数学习第二语言的成年人会不同意这种说法的。 ①本句主语为：Most adults who are learning a second language;谓语为：would disagree with；宾语为：this statement ②主语中包含有一个语法点，定语从句。这是英语中一个非常重要的语法点.顾名思义，定语从句应该在整个句中做定语，请对比如下两句: He bought an interesting book.(定语) / He bought a book which is interesting.（定语从句）。具体介绍该语法点： 修饰名词或代词的从句称为定语从句。被定语从句修饰的名词或代词叫做先行词。定语从句必须放在先行词后面，它需由关系代词或关系副词引导。 通常引导定语从句的关系代词有：who, whom, (一般指人), which(一般指物)，whose, that(人、物均可).关系副词有：when(时间), where(地点), why(原因)。不管是关系代词还是副词引导定语从句时，要在定语从句中充当句子成分。上句中的who are learning a second language修饰先行词most adults, who 是关系代词，在从句中作主语。下面我们一起来看另几个例句：仔细听我的分析！ a.The man who/that will give us a talk has come. b.I know a lady whose husband is a Nobel prize winner. c.She’s the girl who/whom/that I met at the party. d.I live in the room whose window faces south. e.Did you find the bike that/which you lost? ③would此时为助动词，表示“可能，将会”。 ④需掌握的短语：disagree with sb about / on sth e.g. He disagrees with his wife about the education of their son. 2.They need hundreds of hours of study and practice… hundreds of:几百，当hundred, thousand, million用作不确定数目时，需用复数形式，并加介词of;当它们用作确定的数目时，不用复数形式。 e.g. five hundred people; hundreds of people 3.Language learning is different from other kinds of learning. 译：语言学习不同于其他种类的学习。短语：be different from:与…不同 4.Some people who are very intelligent and successful in their fields find it difficult to succeed in language learning. (*) 译：有些人很聪明，在他们自己的专业领域很有成就，但发现很难成功地学习语言。 ①本句主语Some people who are very intelligent and successful in their fields，谓语find，宾语difficult to succeed in language learning，it语法上称作形式宾语:当宾语较长时，常将它移后在空出的位置上用it代替。 ②包含定语从句who are very intelligent and successful in their fields，修饰先行词some people, who在定语从句中作主语。 ③需掌握的习语：be intelligent and successful in one’s field; succeed in sth / doing sth 5.Conversely, some people who are very successful language learners find it difficult to succeed in other fields.(相反地…) 这句话意思和结构与上句相似，口头分析。 6.Language learning research shows that successful language learners are similar in many ways. (*) 译：语言学习研究显示成功的语言学习者在许多方面都是相似的。 ①本句主语Language learning research；谓语：shows；宾语：that引导一个宾语从句。在宾语从句中successful language learners是主语；are是系动词；similar in many ways是表语 ②重要短语be similar (to sb/sth) in sth在…方面与某人/某事相似 7.Instead of waiting for the teachers to explain, they try to find the patterns and the rules for themselves. (*) 译：不是等这老师解释，而是自己努力去发现各种句型和规则。 ①Instead of waiting for the teachers to explain,介词短语作状语，主语：they；谓语：try to find；宾语：the patterns and the rules for themselves ②介词of后的动词要用动名词waiting ③短语：instead of sth; wait for sb to do sth; try to do sth; 8.They find people who speak the language and they ask these people to correct them when they make a mistake. (*) 译：他们寻找说这种语言的人，当他们说错时就请这些人帮助指正。 ①这是一个由and连接的并列句，其中有一个定语从句who speak the language，修饰先行词people;有一个时间状语从句when they make a mistake ②correct: v 指正、纠正，短语：make a mistake 犯错误 9.They are not afraid to repeat what they hear or to say strange things. 译：他们不害怕重复他们听到的或说一些奇怪的东西。 ①what they hear是repeat的宾语从句 ②afraid的用法：be afraid of sth; be afraid to do sth; be afraid that 从句 a.She is afraid to go out alone at night. b.I am afraid of snake. c.He’s afraid that he’ll be late for class. 10.When communication is difficult, they can accept information that is inexact or incomplete. 译：当交流困难时，他们会接受不准确或不完整的信息。 本句中包含一个时间状语从句When communication is difficult，一个定语从句that is inexact or incomplete，修饰先行词information，在从句中that作主语。 11.It’s more important for them to learn to think in the language than to know the meaning of every word. (*) 译：对他们来说，学会用所学的语言来思考比学会每个单词的意思更重要。 ①it作形式主语，真正主语是动词不定式to learn to think in the language.原句语序应是：For them to learn to think in the language is more important than to know the meaning of every word. 用形式主语的目的是因为不定式作主语太长，为避免句子头重脚轻，用it代替真正的主语。 e.g. For many people to learn English well is very difficult. =It’s very difficult for many people to learn English well ②短语：learn to do sth学会做…; more important than …更重要 12.It’s necessary for them to learn the language in order to communicate with these people and to learn from them. = For them to learn the language in order to communicate with these people and to learn from them are necessary 译：对他们来说，学会这种语言以便同这些人交流并向他们学习是非常必要的 ①这句话较复杂，it作形式主语，动词不定式是真正的主语，in order to communicate with these people and to learn from them我们称作目的状语 ②短语：in order to do sth; communicate with sb; learn from sb:向…学习 13.They find it easy to practice using the language regularly because they want to learn with it. 译：因为他们想学会这种语言，所以他们发现不断地练习实际应用这种语言是容易的。 ①it作形式宾语，真正的宾语to practice using the language regularly，原因状语从句because they want to learn with it. ②practice是动词,英式英语拼写形式是practise,美式英语动词和名词拼写都是practice.作动词时，后面只能用动名词，如：practice speaking the language every day. (4段2行) 14.If you are a successful language learner, you have probably been learning independently, actively, and purposefully. (*) 译：如果你是一名成功的语言学习者，你大概一直在独立地、主动地、目的明确地学习。 ①if引导条件状语从句，主句中的have been learning是动词的现在完成进行时，表示动作从以前开始一直不间断地进行到现在。 ②三个副词：independently, actively, and purposefully 要会拼写。 15.on the other hand, if your language learning has been less than successful, you might do well to try some of the techniques outlined above. 译：另一方面来说，如果你的语言学习一直不太成功，你不妨试试上面提到的一些学习技巧。 ①If your language learning has been less than successful是条件状语从句。 ②短语：on the other hand: 另一方面来说; less than successful: 不太成功; might do well to do sth:表示一种委婉语气，不妨…，最好…. e.g. You might do well to take the doctor’s advice. That’s all for this lecture, and let’s continue to learn this unit next time. Don’t forget to review what we have learnt. ok, see you then!